Detroit faces state takeover threat

A declining tax base has left Detroit in a deep fiscal hole and at risk of a state takeover.

By Chris Isidore@CNNMoneyApril 4, 2012: 5:36 PM

NEW YORK (CNNMoney) — It’s crunch time for Detroit.

City and state officials are facing a Thursday deadline to save the city from the threat of looming financial insolvency or a takeover of city government by Michigan.

Fierce opposition from unions — in a city that remains a bastion of labor power — has so far stymied efforts to pass a rescue package.

A deal backed by Mayor Dave Bing and Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder, a Republican, would grant the city the power to void contracts and slash costs but not provide state funding or loans to bail the city out of its financial problems.

Without city council agreement on that deal, Snyder can by law appoint an “emergency manager” who will assume the powers of the mayor and council to run day-to-day operations. He has until Thursday to take such action.

The city council is under pressure from the public and city unions to reject the deal with the state. At the same time, it would lose its powers if Snyder goes ahead and names an emergency manager.

The council was meeting again Wednesday. Earlier in the week, the council moved to double the city’s corporate income tax to 2% as a way to raise badly-needed revenue.

Cool new cars

Years of decline in population and businesses and a shrinking of the tax base have pushed Detroit into a deep financial hole despite a recent resurgence in the U.S. auto industry.

Without more cost cutting, the city won’t be able to pay its bills come June. An estimate in January, the most recently available, was that the city would be down to $20.9 million in the bank by the end of this week.

An emergency manager would have authority to void contracts with both unions and vendors. He or she could also sell off various city assets, from the water department to valuable art in the city’s museum.

As the debates, negotiations and lawsuits raged this week, they did so without Bing, who was recently released from the hospital after serious intestinal surgery and won’t return to work for two weeks. Both Bing and Snyder say they want to avoid a state takeover, which in itself could be the first step toward the largest municipal bankruptcy in the nation’s history.

While Detroit’s own finances continue to struggle, the U.S. automakers based in or near the city have enjoyed a financial resurgence.

General Motors (GM, Fortune 500) reported a record profit in 2011. And a pick-up in auto sales and hiring has led to a nearly two-point drop in Michigan’s unemployment over the last 12 months, the biggest improvement of any state.

First Published: April 4, 2012: 2:27 PM ET


Berlin BMW Guggenheim Canceled Following Threats

by Brian Boucher 03/21/12

An urban public project by BMW and the Guggenheim, planned to open in Berlin May 24, has been canceled due to threats of protests, according to a report from Bloomberg.

The BMW Guggenheim Lab, which made a splash on Manhattan’s Lower East Side when it debuted there last summer with panel discussions, film screenings and the like, was called off “as a consequence of threats to the project,” the Lab said in a statement. Berlin was the second stop on a six-year, nine-city tour.

Left-wing activists issued calls online to urge protesters to “derail” the project, according to the daily Tagesspiegel newspaper.

Ironically for a project intended to “address issues of contemporary urban life,” according to press materials, the Lab was derailed because opponents claimed the project would accelerate the gentrification of Berlin’s Kreuzberg district, where it was to take place, according to Bloomberg.

No new location has yet been announced, and in fact the Lab’s website still indicates it is en route to Berlin.

With tech assets, can Austin become key player in automotive industry?

ByLaylan Copelin


Updated: 11:03 a.m. Sunday, March 11, 2012

Published: 8:59 p.m. Saturday, March 10, 2012

Austin officials – and Texas leaders, for that matter – are getting a touch of  car fever.

Not the desire to buy the latest models, but to help build them — or create  the next generation of high-tech vehicles.

A rebounding automotive industry has Texas lawmakers clearing the way for the  next competition for an assembly plant and Greater Austin Chamber of  Commerce officials intensifying their efforts to play a larger role in the  global automotive industry, especially as technology changes how consumers  think about vehicles.

“Cars are changing; the industry is changing,” said Adrianna Cruz,  vice president of global corporate recruitment at Opportunity Austin, the  chamber’s economic development arm.

“Even though traditional manufacturing is something we’re going to target,”  Cruz said, “Austin could also play a huge role as cars become smarter,  cleaner and safer.”

Cruz said Austin can leverage its technology base, the University of Texas’  research muscle and the city’s lifestyle to capture at least a piece of the  auto industry.

It doesn’t hurt that Texas already has a strong foothold in auto manufacturing  with plants in Arlington and San Antonio, easy access to Mexico’s  manufacturing base, and state leaders interested in expanding Texas’ role in  vehicle manufacturing.

Texas House Speaker Joe Straus — who hails from San Antonio, which landed  Toyota’s truck assembly plant in 2003 — has ordered lawmakers to be sure  Texas has no impediments to competing for future opportunities.

He said he took that step after a group of industry representatives, including  former state senator and General Motors executive John Montford, met with  him last summer.

Those ambitions lead to the question: Could Austin — or Texas — become the  next Detroit?

“The next Detroit? That’s pretty grandiose thinking,” said Kim Hill  with the Center for Automotive Research in Ann Arbor, Mich.

Even in the wake of competition from Southern auto plants, recession,  bankruptcy and bailouts, almost half of the nation’s automotive jobs remain  in Michigan, Indiana and Ohio, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Eleven of the 12 automakers, including the Big Three’s foreign competitors,  have major research and development centers in Michigan.

Many of the industry’s parts suppliers also have their corporate headquarters  in the Midwest.

“Much like Hollywood is to the film industry, Detroit will probably  always lead the nation’s auto industry,” said Greg Burkart, managing  director of the Detroit office of Duff & Phelps, an investment banking  firm that works closely with the automotive industry.

Connections to industry

That’s not to say Hill and Burkart don’t see Austin’s and Texas’ potential as  an automotive industry center.

“Attracting an assembly plant is a once-in-a-lifetime event,” Hill  said. “But the technology end is going to only get bigger and bigger.”

Burkart said “innovation clusters” such as Austin, Raleigh-Durham,  N.C., and Silicon Valley in California could develop their own highly  advanced automotive industries.

“And because many of these regions are highly desirable places to live  and work, Detroit, Germany, Japan and Korea may be forced to ‘come to them’  to remain competitive,” he said.

Vehicle sales in the U.S. shrank dramatically during the recession, from a  production high of 17 million vehicles in 2007 to a low of about 10 million  a couple of years later.

Several plants were shuttered in response, but this year vehicle sales are  projected to reach about 14 million, as auto executives wring as much as  they can from existing plants.

Expansion — at least for some manufacturers — is on the horizon. Foreign  production, in particular, might be shifted to the U.S. because of rising  sales and a weak dollar.

Hyundai’s popularity is straining the capacity of its Alabama and Georgia  plants, Hill said, and Audi is weighing opening a North American facility.

Honda and Toyota, once they’ve recovered, might expand operations in the  United States, Hill said.

Texas already has a large role in vehicle manufacturing. In 2010, the state  ranked sixth nationally for automotive manufacturing employment, according  to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, with plants building everything from cars  to trucks to military vehicles.

Start-up City, USA

Detroit isn’t a blank canvas. Instead, it’s a complex scene that has everything an entrepreneur needs to start his dream company, Josh Linkner writes.


INSIDE/OUTSIDE: A project by The Detroit Institute of Arts that takes its collection to the streets as part of a celebration of its 125th anniversary.

“Detroit is a blank canvas.”

I cringe every time I hear this phrase, even though it’s used by people who mean well.

To say something that references “emptiness” regarding a city founded in 1701 is both unfair and inaccurate, as it implies that there’s nothing here—or worse—that there’s nothing worth talking about here.

By suggesting this, the speaker disregards momentum building around the Detroit 2.0 movement, which is in full swing. Dan Gilbert, my partner in Detroit Venture Partners, has purchased nearly three million square feet of commercial real estate, setting off a trigger reaction for private investment downtown, where sports, business, technology, and the arts converge. Over the next few years, we’ll witness the positive effects of our city’s revitalization from within, as fallout from this tipping point of innovation.

Rather than refer to Detroit as a blank canvas, perhaps it makes more sense to call it an unfinished one. There are already splatters of paint on the board demonstrating promise, as well as blunders that need to be fixed. However, there is still enough white space left for someone to come in and make a mark, which will leave a lasting impression on the painting. People innovating and using creativity to win are making some of the most impactful brush strokes; the end result is a more beautiful painting for us all to enjoy.

Entrepreneurship requires you to get in the trenches. It’s true that Detroit’s trenches are more war-torn than others you might find. That being said, there’s a strong case to be made for starting a business here, stemming precisely from these long-standing challenges and problems. The following elements are like buckets of paint, a toolkit of brushes, or even a paint-by-number guide: they make it easier for someone to add to the canvas.

Talent: This area is chock full of people who are hungry for an opportunity. New graduates make up the first camp—those born and bred in the region are educated in a local network of world-class universities, leaving ready to enter the business world. The current market has forced many of these graduates to launch their careers elsewhere, causing a “brain drain,” but this trend can be stopped by providing jobs locally. Unfortunately for the economy, there’s a large group of professionals who are out of work. Engineers, laborers, techies, sales associates, managers, consultants and a whole host of others now need jobs, many of whom have years of business experience under their belt. For a savvy business owner, this second group provides a capable workforce. Why pay more to fight over average talent when you could have your choice of hirable, less expensive A-listers?

Space: With more than 130 square miles and too many vacancies to count within its borders, Detroit boasts land. Lots of it. No other major city would have empty skyscrapers available for purchase, let alone for pennies on the square foot. Similarly, no other major city would have vacant lots, begging for parks, gardens and public art pieces, let alone with herds of new downtown residents awaiting them. Just as a brush needs a painter to bring it into action, so too does this land require someone to make use of it.

“Small” Town: Although Detroit is one of the largest American cities, it retains an attitude of a “big city, small town.” When someone starts a business in New York or Los Angeles, it’s easy to get lost in the shuffle. Here, new businesses stand out and we take notice, welcoming newbies with open arms and celebrating their entrepreneurial fire. Because of this, it’s often easier to get face time with head honchos here than it would be elsewhere, which makes your business’s goals more quickly attainable.

Something Bigger: It’s rare to be in the right place at the right time, but when you are, the sparks just seem to ignite out of thin air. At this moment, Detroit seems to be “right,” as it’s experiencing a truly fresh start through revitalization. It’s not just an up-and-coming downtown center that’s drawing talent; it’s the chance to help change the landscape of a region that is in dire need of it and the opportunity to make a long-lasting impact. Being a part of something bigger than oneself is special and adds another layer of importance to anything your company does. Instill a sense of purpose—and pride—in your employees by being a part of something meaningful. Put passion first, and dollars will follow.

Yes, Detroit is in a sense wide open, awaiting those who want to take advantage of opportunities for growth. Yes, the city has much room for improvement in a variety of areas, many of which have long been ignored. No, that doesn’t mean it’s a blank canvas, and it definitely doesn’t mean we should refer to it as such. Instead, we need to realize we have the once-in-a-lifetime chance to make a noticeable brushstroke on a canvas whose final version affects us all. Let’s seize it.

Josh Linkner is a five-time entrepreneur, venture capitalist, professor, and New York Times best-selling author of Disciplined Dreaming—A Proven System to Drive Breakthrough Creativity.  You can read more at @JoshLinkner

Retooling the Manufacturing Community through Technology

This article was sent to me by a fellow student, and I feel it explains exactly how I hope this project will aid in recovering the economy of Detroit, and ultimately revive the city into a new digitally driven manufacturing hub.

In the article Bruce Katz states “Economy shaping is going to require a new kind of placemaking.  Placemaking has been focused around quality places and liveable places, which is very important to attract and retain talented workers.  But the urban planning field has been too narrowly focused on placemaking.”

The goal of my project is not to create some new great place for people to come and go as they please. The project is designed to engage people in a fundamentally different way. It is going to draw them in not through the beauty of the architecture, but through the substance it provides. The innovation, the creativity, the aura are the essential elements that keep people coming back. The idea is not to create a place that is flashy and is the talk of the town for a couple of years until the next big thing comes along. The idea is to create something that truly progresses the norm. Something that transcends current comprehension and opens up new doors that no one knows exists.

For this reason, the project is located in building that currently exist, buildings that have been neglected for thirty years.  The project adapts these building to create spaces and architecture that does more than provide a place for people to come.  It provides a place for people to learn, to collaborate, to adapt and to transcend themselves into new discoveries.

The future of Detroit does not lie in new casinos or sporting complexes.  The future of Detroit lies within its people and their ability to adapt to the ever changing world.  The future of Detroit lies within its economy and its ability to adapt to new technologies and industries.  The future of Detroit lies within its people to create something truly transcending.

Bruce Katz: Better Economic Structure Will Save the City


“Monument to Joe Louis,” Detroit’s iconic sculpture. Photo: Dogs New Clothes/Flickr

Bruce Katz sees the future of our cities a little differently than his fellow urbanists.

Katz, the founding director of the Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program, believes optimizing economic structure, not urban form, is the key to revitalizing depressed cities and strengthening thriving ones. It’s a departure from the thinking of many colleagues, who believe revitalization based on pretty buildings and the service sector will attract business.

The way Katz sees it, cities have gotten their forms down pretty well. Most of them have done a good job optimizing density, emphasizing greenspace and generally making things more attractive. But economic development has too often focused on what Katz calls “Starbucks and stadia.”

There is a legitimate case for service-sector communities, he argues, but it is far wiser to embrace tech, manufacturing and exports. This would bring more shared and sustainable growth as cities shift from consumption- and service-reliant economies toward economies built on innovation and production. You’re suggesting cities take a fundamentally different approach to urban development than has been the norm. Who’s actually doing it?

Bruce Katz: New York. If you look at New York right now, what Mayor [Michael] Bloomberg focused on for the last decade was building stadiums for use in the Olympics. That has changed to focus on the applied sciences and attract Cornell [University] and other institutions to build and diversify New York’s economy from the service and financial sectors of the economy. What other cities are embracing this model?

Katz: In other cities and regions, such as northeast Ohio, they are focused on retooling the industrial sector for the green economy because they are a powerhouse for manufacturing. This builds on their history, including the automotive industry. Seattle has the potential to be a hub of big, clean information technology due to the firms already in the region, such as Microsoft. Has the recession played a role in this?

Katz: Since the recession cities are now moving away from the service and real estate sectors and starting to look toward the tradable economy for sustained growth. These are the wealth-generating sectors that drive everything else. Without them you do not have a functioning retail or housing sector. We are trying to work with cities on identifying their strengths and how they focus on moving their economies toward this model of development. During the last 30 years cities have focused on creating places and on the urban form. Is what you’re suggesting so different an approach?

Katz: Yes, but urban form is critical to this. Economy shaping is going require a new kind of placemaking. Placemaking has been focused around quality places and liveable places, which is very important to attract and retain talented workers. But the urban planning field has been too narrowly focused on placemaking. Meaning?

Katz: You can’t just focus on housing and transit in the core of a city, you need to focus on the physical needs of manufacturing, development and the needs that go along with them. That will clearly have a huge effect not only on the city but regional level. How so?

Katz: On the city level, it will create what we call innovation districts. If you take the major research institutions and tech clusters that are being created, how do you take them and arrange them in a purposeful way with mixed use housing and amenities that attract talent but work for industry? Boston is doing this and Barcelona is clearly doing this. San Francisco and Detroit are doing this also. These cities are creating places that let all of these sectors work in a derivative way and form starting at the economic level. By doing this the form follows these sectors that drive wealth. San Francisco and Detroit are two vastly different cities in two different regions, culturally and economically, especially with regard to tech…

Katz: I am actually very bullish on Detroit. If you look at the Woodward corridor downtown to midtown, what you see is the growth of some tech-oriented industries with Quicken Loans and Compuware and Henry Ford Medical and Wayne State. What you have are some major institutions being the platform of both residential growth, which is happening, but also the growth of business incubators. I think the core of Detroit, with focused public and private sector investment, could be very different. You also have the added bonus of seeing Canada from Detroit. Having our largest trading partner bordering the city is a big advantage, and one that hasn’t been exploited. The growth from that in the way that we see in Europe across national lines could really change how Detroit grows in the future. Not to dwell on Detroit, but do you think it could be the next tech city?

Katz: Detroit has the possibility to do that, yes. Detroit also has some real problems that need to be addressed, but with what is going on there the entire core could be an innovation district. What needs to happen for cities like Detroit to rebound?

Katz: The cities that will flourish are the ones that are on the vanguard of policy. Historically, New York and Chicago have the ability to adapt and flourish because large cities are essentially co-governed. Private capital and institutions work with city governments to create physical forms and policies that perpetuate this type of growth. But can Detroit become Silicon Valley?

Katz:The tech we should focus on is not just Facebook tech or Google tech but rather manufacturing tech, green tech. If we don’t focus on this we will see ourselves in 50 years having lost our economic advantage and loose our place in the world. This is well within our grasp. We have the ability to be the leaders if we just focus our attention. This is not just about advanced telecommunications. That it is part of it. But most of our new patents come form manufacturing. We need to stay on the forefront of this. You’ve mentioned things like public investment, smarter policy and the need for more government involvement. Given the current political climate, is this possible? Can we even have the discussion?

Katz: If you really want smart cities, you do not want government to get of the way, you want it to get into the game. You can really integrate technology across places and spaces throughout cities if the government is working with the tech sector to make it happen. It takes local political leaders and private capital to make it happen. The federal government is very disconnected from this. The cities are the engines of the economy. It is not Ben Bernanke who will do this, but cities supporting their key industries.


Day Four – Urban Ruins

I spent the day driving around the city on a mission to find urban ruins. I knew of a few, and during my traveling I found more than I could imagine. The city is truly FILLED with old abandoned, sometimes damaged buildings that have been rotting for years. Some of the most famous ruins such as The Fisher Body Plant, The Packard Plant, and Michigan Central Station are easy to find and are well known. What I did not expect was to find so many other buildings, from multi-family housing, to fire stations, to small shops. The abandonment just gives the city an eerie feeling.

| Insert Video |

I began to wonder what the city would look like if all of the abandoned and damaged buildings were torn down. What would the city fabric look like then? This sprawling city would be reduced to nothing more than a downtown area and satellite areas of neighborhoods and business. There was an article in the paper for the day that highlighted some of the public work changes that are occurring around the city. It noted that the city was going to begin to focus its efforts in neighborhoods that had potential for a successful future. The city will only spend money “where it will do the most good.” This statement foreshadows a bleak future for neighborhoods that are in long term decline. A map accompanied the article which highlighted neighborhoods and their potential. This map illustrates how the city could be transformed if neighborhoods in decline were removed. The downtown area would be on an island and most of the population would be situated along the river bank and northern areas of the city. A greenbelt could be situated around the downtown area, providing much needed long term greenspace for the city.

| Insert Neighborhood Map |

City finding a way to make Detroit Works actually work,

Why has the city held onto these buildings for so long? Why are there no requirements by the property owners to do something about a majority of these buildings? Is the issue neglect or just pure abandonment? If it is abandonment, why has it taken so long for the city to do something about the problem? I drove up to the Packard Plant and was amazed that I could just walk into the building. The building appears to be very unsafe, as parts of the building have collapsed, and others are showing extreme signs of decay. There was no fence around the building and it was literally trashed out. The ground was covered in debris, almost like a landfill. There were piles of tires in one corner, remnants of old burned up furniture in another and nothing worth anything was left in the building. Is it not the responsibility of the property owner to provide some sort of security on their site?

The shocking part of this trip is the history that sits behind many of these buildings. So many of the iconic buildings are directly tied to the automobile history of the city, and other than the original Ford Plant on Piquette Street, the remaining buildings sit in disarray and ruins. The Ford Piquette plant was recently restored and now has tours that run from April to November. Many of these buildings, including dozens in downtown are local, state and national treasures, but they sit with little to no attention.

The nightly news is pretty depressing, as it is mostly filled with reports of the downfall of the city. One report was about how the city ambulance fleet is in such poor shape that they are asking for donations from municipalities around the country. They want other cities to donate their older ambulances, ones they are not using or are looking to get rid of. The report began with an account of a women dying because the ambulance broke down on the way to get her and the backup unit did not make it in time. Watching the news while I have been in Detroit makes me fully aware that the city has no money, but that has not always been the case. Much of the abandonment has been going on for quite some time, but the recent economic downturn has exacerbated the issue. So why did the city wait until they were flat broke? What has the citizens tax dollars been used for over the last 30 years? Has it been used on endless efforts to build new ideas and provide typical and expensive urban public projects like the Detroit People Mover? This may be the largest example of how to not run a city, and why it is important to remember that a city cannot change its direction by just building a football stadium or putting in a public transit system that only serves a small population.

I have a friend who is from Detroit, but moved away about 4 years ago. He still visits the city as some of his family lives just north of Detroit, and he recounts that the city has been like this for some time. He noted on our trip while we drove around that he had not realized it had gotten this bad. On the other hand, his mother kept telling me that the city is not all that bad. She is very positive about the city and believes that there are pockets of good things happening. I want to agree with her, but after what I saw over the last few days, my reaction is semi-hearted. I personally feel that this is just about as bad as the city could get, and that it only has the potential to go up. I do believe that it is heading in a better direction that it has in quite some time, but it is going to take some time to make a big dent in the over 30 years of decline. It appears that Mayor David Bing has the right idea on what to do with the city. Although it may be tough to tear down so much of the city and its history, this may be the best opportunity for the city to start over. How many cities get this opportunity? Cities like Houston just keep building on top of itself. This is where I think the biggest potential lies with the city.

During the afternoon, I went to the Detroit Historical Museum just north of Wayne State University. The museum had on display much of the city’s history, most of which focused on the automobile industry and the early discovery and development of the city. There was a small section dedicated to the architecture of the city. This area highlighted the movement and development of the Big Three car manufacturers and architecture accompanying their movement. The city has a rich history and it was amazing seeing the pictures of the city in its hay-day and then driving up Woodward Avenue and seeing the stark difference of the city today. The city streets, like Woodward, were once bussing with activity and future, but today most residents opt for the highway which provides a quick in and out of city. This leaves streets like Woodward relatively empty and less traveled.

| Insert images of the city fabric over its history |

I learned of an organization by the Big Three automakers to collaborate on technological advancements. This effort is called USCAR (United States Council for Automotive Research) and they are partnered with Ford, GM and Chrysler to provide and promote advancements in automobile technology. At first glance, it is difficult to tell how successful this organization is and how integrated it is with advancing technologies in automobiles. It will take some more digging and research to determine the full extent of its involvement and contributions to the automobile industry.



Day Three – Downtown

The day was spent downtown, exploring the vast abandonment that has been occurring in this area. According to residents, a majority of the buildings in the downtown area are now in the ownership of Detroit businessman, Dan Gilbert. Dan Gilbert is the chairman and founder of Quicken Loans as well as owner of the NBA basketball team, the Cleveland Cavaliers. Gilbert founded Rock Ventures LLC, and is also a partner for Detroit Venture partners. His goal is to aid the redevelopment of downtown Detroit by fostering a business incubation process that invites technology and small business startups to lease space in these vacant buildings. The process is designed to bring small companies that can feed off each other and ultimately diversify the business portfolio of the city. Gilbert has also moved his company, Quicken Loans, to downtown Detroit, which brings around 1,700 employees and a potential for 4,000 to the city’s core.

Quicken Loans founder buys historic Detroit site, Quicken Loans founder Dan Gilbert buys historic Federal Reserve Building in downtown Detroit,

Interestingly enough, during my tour around Grand Circus Park, I learned that Gilbert owns the Madison Theater Building which he bought last year in 2011 to house Detroit Venture Partners and start the incubation process. The surprising part was that this building is located right next to the David Broderick tower and is an integral building to the site and project idea. The building has just opened and now has a few startup companies that are in the beginning stages of engaging the business incubator process.

Detroit Venture Partners,

Quicken Loans completes deal for Madison Theatre building; will be renovated for business incubator,

Refurbished M@dison Building shows off entrepreneurial chops,

After a short lunch break at Lafeyette Coney Island, I took a trip on the People Mover, an elevated train that provides quick access to many different areas of downtown. The train is not widely used and has been an issue of consternation with residents of Detroit. It provides little service to the downtown area due to the lack of people living downtown, ridership is meek, and it contributes to a lack of street life at ground level, as those who would possibly walk just take the train. The project was instigated and completed by the controversial Mayor Coleman Young and opened in 1987.

Detroit People Mover,

The architecture in downtown Detroit is amazing. Through the architecture, you can see that the city was enjoying its best times during the early 20th century. Many of the buildings were built before 1940, and the city has a large population of high-rise buildings. As you walk around it really is amazing at how many of these buildings are vacant, some in worse shape than others. Some have been left to decay for years, even decades. Due to when most of these buildings were built, many of them are difficult to retrofit into many of the functions required by businesses today. Most of the buildings have no future due to this, or their only hope is to be transformed into housing condominiums or lofts. This has been the model for quite some time, but it may become successful in the near future due to the desire by many young people to live in the downtown environment.

In the Grand Circus Park area, almost all of the buildings around the site currently are vacant, although some work was being done to several of the buildings. The park itself does not serve as much of a gathering space for people. At the time of visit, there was nobody present in the park space. According to residents, there is quite a bit of movement in and around the site during baseball and football games at the neighboring Tiger’s Stadium and Ford Field. Although there are times of little movement in this area, the baseball and football seasons bring movement almost year round. Baseball runs from the spring through fall and football runs from the fall through winter. There is only a short time of inactivity which occurs around the time of my visit.